In some parts of this proposal, the basic concept of cooperative learning has actually been slightly discussed especially in conjunction with the concept of collaborative learning Although there is little gap between cooperative and collaborative teaming. both are basically working together oriented. Even some educators, like Larsen and Freeman (20021 164) equate both by stating that cooperative or collaborative learning essentially involves students learning from each other in groups. But it is not the group configuration that makes cooperative teaming distinctive; it is the way that students and teachers work together that is important. ln cooperative teaming, teachers teach students
collaborative or social skills so that they can work together more effectively. In simpler words, cooperation is not only a way of learning, but also a theme to be communicated about and studied
Johnson et al (2010: 4) that cooperative learning is a process learning and teaching implementing small groups through which students together for effective process and maximum results. The basic principle of cooperative learning is “your success benefits me and my success is beneficial to you". All group members perceive that they have the same fortune and goal to achieve in that success is theirs and so is the opposite.
Johnson et al (2010: 8-10) propose five components of cooperative learning, namely (1) positive interdependence, (2) promotive interaction, (3) individual accountability, (4) interpersonal and small group skills, and (5) group processing.
The positive interdependence is the first and the most importance component within a cooperative learning. As mentioned earlier, the success of an individual is the success of others (group members) whereas the failure of group is the failure of every individual. As the second component in a cooperative learning, promotive interaction would be better under the form of face to face interaction. Within the category of promotive interaction is oral explanation on how to solve problem, discussing the essence of the materials being learnt, and linking the today learning materials with those learnt in the past
Individual accountability refers to the main goal of cooperative learning, that is, every group member is expected to a stronger and independent individual. Students work together for the purpose of creating individual with better performance than before. The component of interpersonal and small group skills refers to the concept that in a cooperative learning every member or students is demanded to learn all academic materials and explore interpersonal skills so that everyone can contribute well in group. Group processing component refers to the concept that every member must realizes if his contribution to the group is absolutely urgent in the effort to achieve group goals.
Macleod et al (2003: 147) state that although there are a variety of models for cooperative learning, they are similar in nature. Group formations include students of mixed ability, ethnicities, and genders. In cooperative learning, participants Iearn as a group in a noncompetitive environment but are assessed as individuals, with possible bonus points when all group members achieve positive results.
Quoted from Suhartina R Proposal , Hasanuddin University